mysql介绍和安装

1. MySQL版本选择
(1)mysql5.6以后版本,推荐使用官方版本
(2)percona:在5.6版本以后,mysql将percona之前优化集成到官方版本中
(3)mariaDB:无Innodb;且核心代码比较老
(4)mysql在5.6以后不断重构源码,功能及性能在持续改进

2. mysql官方网站介绍
官方网站:https://www.mysql.com/
(1)DEVELOPER ZONE:mysql开发工程师模块
MySQL Engineering Blogs:工程师博客
Planet MySQL:mysql从业人员博客
Bugs :mysql bugs
Worklog :mysql开发记录
Labs :实验项目

(2)DOWNLOADS:mysql下载
Enterprise:mysql企业相关

Community:社区版本
MySQL Community Server:mysql server
MySQL Router:路由中间件
MySQL Utilities:mysql应用程序包
MySQL Workbench:官方图形化管理界面

(3)DOCUMENTATION:myxql文档
可以下载离线文档:
https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/

3. mysql下载
(1)推荐使用linux-Generic
(2)source code版本主要作用是为了开发人员研究源码使用,自己编译对性能提升不明显
(3)不推荐version 5.5.x版本,有部分bug
(4)推荐使用 version 5.6.x和version 5.7.x
下载地址:https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/

4. mysql安装
(1)通用安装步骤
解压缩 mysql-Version-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz
打开INSTALL_BINARY文件,安装shell>开头步骤进行操作
将export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin 添加到/etc/profile
chkconfig mysqld on 或者 chkconfig mysql.server on根据你环境而定

(2)5.6x安装:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
#Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

(3)5.7.x安装

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> mkdir mysql-files
shell> chown mysql:mysql mysql-files
shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql     ##这里会生成密码 记录下来
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup              
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
#Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

(4)验证安装
data目录在安装之前是空目录,安装完成后应该有ibxxx等文件
安装过程中输出信息中,不应该包含ERROR信息,错误信息默认会写入到$HOSTNAME.error文件中
通过/bin/mysql命令(5.7.x包含零时密码)可以正常登陆

(5)mysql启动
mysqld_safe --user=mysql & 即可启动

5. 附录 my.cnf

[client]
#user=david
#password=88888888

[mysqld]
########basic settings########
server-id = 11 
port = 3306
user = mysql
#bind_address = 10.166.224.32
#autocommit = 0
character_set_server=utf8mb4
skip_name_resolve = 1
max_connections = 800
max_connect_errors = 1000
datadir = /data/mysql_data
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = 1
join_buffer_size = 134217728
tmp_table_size = 67108864
tmpdir = /tmp
max_allowed_packet = 16777216
sql_mode = "STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,NO_ZERO_DATE,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER"
interactive_timeout = 1800
wait_timeout = 1800
read_buffer_size = 16777216
read_rnd_buffer_size = 33554432
sort_buffer_size = 33554432
########log settings########
log_error = error.log
slow_query_log = 1
slow_query_log_file = slow.log
log_queries_not_using_indexes = 1
log_slow_admin_statements = 1
log_slow_slave_statements = 1
log_throttle_queries_not_using_indexes = 10
expire_logs_days = 90
long_query_time = 2
min_examined_row_limit = 100
########replication settings########
master_info_repository = TABLE
relay_log_info_repository = TABLE
log_bin = bin.log
sync_binlog = 1
gtid_mode = on
enforce_gtid_consistency = 1
log_slave_updates
binlog_format = row 
relay_log = relay.log
relay_log_recovery = 1
binlog_gtid_simple_recovery = 1
slave_skip_errors = ddl_exist_errors
########innodb settings########
innodb_page_size = 8192
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 6G
innodb_buffer_pool_instances = 8
innodb_buffer_pool_load_at_startup = 1
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_at_shutdown = 1
innodb_lru_scan_depth = 2000
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 5
innodb_io_capacity = 4000
innodb_io_capacity_max = 8000
innodb_flush_method = O_DIRECT
innodb_file_format = Barracuda
innodb_file_format_max = Barracuda
#innodb_log_group_home_dir = /redolog/
#innodb_undo_directory = /undolog/
innodb_undo_logs = 128
innodb_undo_tablespaces = 3
innodb_flush_neighbors = 1
innodb_log_file_size = 4G
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16777216
innodb_purge_threads = 4
innodb_large_prefix = 1
innodb_thread_concurrency = 64
innodb_print_all_deadlocks = 1
innodb_strict_mode = 1
innodb_sort_buffer_size = 67108864 
########semi sync replication settings########
plugin_dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin
plugin_load = "rpl_semi_sync_master=semisync_master.so;rpl_semi_sync_slave=semisync_slave.so"
loose_rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled = 1
loose_rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled = 1
loose_rpl_semi_sync_master_timeout = 5000

[mysqld-5.7]
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_pct = 40
innodb_page_cleaners = 4
innodb_undo_log_truncate = 1
innodb_max_undo_log_size = 2G
innodb_purge_rseg_truncate_frequency = 128
binlog_gtid_simple_recovery=1
log_timestamps=system
transaction_write_set_extraction=MURMUR32
show_compatibility_56=on