一、Nginx安装

1、下载并解压安装包

[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@zhulinux-02 src]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz
[root@zhulinux-02 src]# tar zxf nginx-1.12.2.tar.gz

2、配置编译选项

[root@zhulinux-02 src]# cd nginx-1.12.2
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx

3、编译和安装

[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# make
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# make install

4、编写Nginx启动脚本并加入系统服务和开机启动

[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# vim /etc/init.d/nginx     //加入以下内容

#!/bin/bash
# chkconfig: - 30 21
# description: http service.
# Source Function Library
. /etc/init.d/functions
# Nginx Settings
NGINX_SBIN="/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
NGINX_CONF="/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
NGINX_PID="/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid"
RETVAL=0
prog="Nginx"
start() 
{
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    mkdir -p /dev/shm/nginx_temp
    daemon $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
stop() 
{
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -TERM
    rm -rf /dev/shm/nginx_temp
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
reload()
{
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
restart()
{
    stop
    start
}
configtest()
{
    $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF -t
    return 0
}
case "$1" in
  start)
        start
        ;;
  stop)
        stop
        ;;
  reload)
        reload
        ;;
  restart)
        restart
        ;;
  configtest)
        configtest
        ;;
  *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|restart|configtest}"
        RETVAL=1
esac
exit $RETVAL

[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# chkconfig --add nginx                    //加入系统服务
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# chkconfig nginx on                        //开机启动

4、更改Nginx配置文件

[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# > /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf        //重定向符号>,单独使用时,可以吧一个文本文档快速清空
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf    //写入以下内容

user nobody nobody;
worker_processes 2;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log crit;
pid /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
{
    use epoll;
    worker_connections 6000;
}
http
{
    include mime.types;
    default_type application/octet-stream;
    server_names_hash_bucket_size 3526;
    server_names_hash_max_size 4096;
    log_format combined_realip '$remote_addr $http_x_forwarded_for [$time_local]'
    ' $host "$request_uri" $status'
    ' "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"';
    sendfile on;
    tcp_nopush on;
    keepalive_timeout 30;
    client_header_timeout 3m;
    client_body_timeout 3m;
    send_timeout 3m;
    connection_pool_size 256;
    client_header_buffer_size 1k;
    large_client_header_buffers 8 4k;
    request_pool_size 4k;
    output_buffers 4 32k;
    postpone_output 1460;
    client_max_body_size 10m;
    client_body_buffer_size 256k;
    client_body_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/client_body_temp;
    proxy_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/proxy_temp;
    fastcgi_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/fastcgi_temp;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    tcp_nodelay on;
    gzip on;
    gzip_min_length 1k;
    gzip_buffers 4 8k;
    gzip_comp_level 5;
    gzip_http_version 1.1;
    gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css text/htm 
    application/xml;
    server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name localhost;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /usr/local/nginx/html;
        location ~ \.php$ 
        {
            include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-fcgi.sock;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
        }    
    }
}

[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# service nginx start   //启动nginx
[root@zhulinux-02 nginx-1.12.2]# ps aux |grep nginx
root      14119  0.0  0.0  20500   628 ?        Ss   14:54   0:00 nginx: master process /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nobody    14120  0.0  0.1  22944  3212 ?        S    14:54   0:00 nginx: worker process
nobody    14121  0.0  0.1  22944  3212 ?        S    14:54   0:00 nginx: worker process
root      14123  0.0  0.0 112680   968 pts/0    R+   14:54   0:00 grep --color=auto nginx

6、测试是否正确解析PHP

[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# vim /usr/local/nginx/html/test.php   //写入以下内容

<?php
echo "This is a test php page!";
?>

[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# curl localhost/test.php
This is a test php page![root@zhulinux-02 ~]#       //出现这个说明解析正常

二、Nginx默认虚拟主机

在Nginx中也有默认虚拟主机,跟httpd类似,第一个被Nginx加载的虚拟主机就是默认主机,但和httpd不相同的地方是,它还有一个配置用来标记默认虚拟主机,也就是说,如果没有这个标记,第一个虚拟主机为默认虚拟主机。

1、修改主配置文件

[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf       //修改为以下内容

#加入这行,意思是/usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/下面所有以.conf结尾的都会加载
        include vhost/*.conf;
#这里方便实验先注释掉server的内容
#    server
#    {
#        listen 80;
#        server_name localhost;
#        index index.html index.htm index.php;
#        root /usr/local/nginx/html;
#        location ~ \.php$ 
#        {
#            include fastcgi_params;
#            fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-fcgi.sock;
#            fastcgi_index index.php;
#            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
#        }    
#    }   
}  

2、创建vhost目录及配置文件

[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# mkdir /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost
[root@zhulinux-02 ~]# cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# vim zlinux.conf        //写入以下内容

server
{
   listen 80 default_server;   //有这个标记的就是默认虚拟主机
   server_name zlinux.com;
   index index.html index.htm index.php;
   root /data/wwwroot/default;
}

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# mkdir /data/wwwroot
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/default
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload       //重新加载配置文件

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# echo "这是默认主机" > /data/wwwroot/default/index.html
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 zlinux.com
这是默认主机
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 11223.com     //访问一个没有定义的网址,一会访问到zlinux.com
这是默认主机

三、用户认证

1、创建一个新的虚拟主机

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# vim linuxtest.conf

server
{
   listen 80;                  
   server_name linuxtest.com;
   index index.html index.htm index.php;
   root /data/wwwroot/linuxxtest;

   location /
     {
       auth_basic         "Auth";
       auth_basic_user_file /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
     }
}

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/linuxtest
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# yum install -y httpd     //安装httpd,也可以用之前编译安装的apache2
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# htpasswd -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd zlinux     //-c选项第一创建用户时使用,否则回清空用户
New password: 
Re-type new password: 
Adding password for user zlinux
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

两句核心,auth_basic打开认证,auth_basic_user_file指定用户密码文件。生成密码工具需要借助apache的htpasswd。Nginx不自带这个工具。

2、验证

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 linuxtest.com -I
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Server: nginx/1.12.2
Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 07:38:42 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 195
Connection: keep-alive
WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="Auth"
//401状态码,说明访问需要验证
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 -u zlinux:123456 linuxtest.com      //加上用户名密码就能访问
这是用户认证测试主机

四、域名重定向

Nginx的域名重定向与httpd类似。

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# vim moved.conf

server
{
    listen 80;
    #nginx可以配置多个主机名,apache只能使用ServerAlias来指定别名 
    server_name testmoved.com testmoved2.com testmoved3.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root /data/wwwroot/testmoved;
    #判断host是否为test.com
    if ($host != 'test.com') 
    {   
    rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://test.com/$1 permanent;
    }
}

[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/testmoved
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# echo "重新定向测试成功" > /data/wwwroot/testmoved/index.html
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 testmoved.com/
重新定向测试成功
[root@zhulinux-02 vhost]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 testmoved2.com/ -I
HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
Server: nginx/1.12.2
Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 08:07:21 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 185
Connection: keep-alive
Location: http://testmoved.com/