MemCache是什么?

MemCache是一个自由、源码开放、高性能、分布式的分布式内存对象缓存系统,用于动态Web应用以减轻数据库的负载。它通过在内存中缓存数据和对象来减少读取数据库的次数,从而提高了网站访问的速度。 MemCaChe是一个存储键值对的HashMap,在内存中对任意的数据(比如字符串、对象等)所使用的key-value存储,数据可以来自数据库调用、API调用,或者页面渲染的结果。MemCache设计理念就是小而强大,它简单的设计促进了快速部署、易于开发并解决面对大规模的数据缓存的许多难题,而所开放的API使得MemCache能用于Java、C/C++/C#、Perl、Python、PHP、Ruby等大部分流行的程序语言。

另外,说一下MemCache和MemCached的区别:

1、MemCache是项目的名称

2、MemCached是MemCache服务器端可以执行文件的名称

MemCache的官方网站为 http://memcached.org/

MemCache访问模型 

为了加深理解,我模仿着原阿里技术专家李智慧老师《大型网站技术架构 核心原理与案例分析》一书MemCache部分,自己画了一张图: 



特别澄清一个问题,MemCache虽然被称为”分布式缓存”,但是MemCache本身完全不具备分布式的功能,MemCache集群之间不会相互通信(与之形成对比的,比如JBoss Cache,某台服务器有缓存数据更新时,会通知集群中其他机器更新缓存或清除缓存数据),所谓的”分布式”,完全依赖于客户端程序的实现,就像上面这张图的流程一样。

同时基于这张图,理一下MemCache一次写缓存的流程:

1、应用程序输入需要写缓存的数据

2、API将Key输入路由算法模块,路由算法根据Key和MemCache集群服务器列表得到一台服务器编号

3、由服务器编号得到MemCache及其的ip地址和端口号

4、API调用通信模块和指定编号的服务器通信,将数据写入该服务器,完成一次分布式缓存的写操作

读缓存和写缓存一样,只要使用相同的路由算法和服务器列表,只要应用程序查询的是相同的Key,MemCache客户端总是访问相同的客户端去读取数据,只要服务器中还缓存着该数据,就能保证缓存命中。

这种MemCache集群的方式也是从分区容错性的方面考虑的,假如Node2宕机了,那么Node2上面存储的数据都不可用了,此时由于集群中Node0和Node1还存在,下一次请求Node2中存储的Key值的时候,肯定是没有命中的,这时先从数据库中拿到要缓存的数据,然后路由算法模块根据Key值在Node0和Node1中选取一个节点,把对应的数据放进去,这样下一次就又可以走缓存了,这种集群的做法很好,但是缺点是成本比较大。

一致性Hash算法 

从上面的图中,可以看出一个很重要的问题,就是对服务器集群的管理,路由算法至关重要,就和负载均衡算法一样,路由算法决定着究竟该访问集群中的哪台服务器,先看一个简单的路由算法。

1、余数Hash

比方说,字符串str对应的HashCode是50、服务器的数目是3,取余数得到1,str对应节点Node1,所以路由算法把str路由到Node1服务器上。由于HashCode随机性比较强,所以使用余数Hash路由算法就可以保证缓存数据在整个MemCache服务器集群中有比较均衡的分布。

如果不考虑服务器集群的伸缩性(什么是伸缩性,请参见大型网站架构学习笔记),那么余数Hash算法几乎可以满足绝大多数的缓存路由需求,但是当分布式缓存集群需要扩容的时候,就难办了。

就假设MemCache服务器集群由3台变为4台吧,更改服务器列表,仍然使用余数Hash,50对4的余数是2,对应Node2,但是str原来是存在Node1上的,这就导致了缓存没有命中。如果这么说不够明白,那么不妨举个例子,原来有HashCode为0~19的20个数据,那么:


现在我扩容到4台,加粗标红的表示命中: 


如果我扩容到20+的台数,只有前三个HashCode对应的Key是命中的,也就是15%。当然这只是个简单例子,现实情况肯定比这个复杂得多,不过足以说明,使用余数Hash的路由算法,在扩容的时候会造成大量的数据无法正确命中(其实不仅仅是无法命中,那些大量的无法命中的数据还在原缓存中在被移除前占据着内存)。这个结果显然是无法接受的,在网站业务中,大部分的业务数据度操作请求上事实上是通过缓存获取的,只有少量读操作会访问数据库,因此数据库的负载能力是以有缓存为前提而设计的。当大部分被缓存了的数据因为服务器扩容而不能正确读取时,这些数据访问的压力就落在了数据库的身上,这将大大超过数据库的负载能力,严重的可能会导致数据库宕机。

这个问题有解决方案,解决步骤为:

(1)在网站访问量低谷,通常是深夜,技术团队加班,扩容、重启服务器

(2)通过模拟请求的方式逐渐预热缓存,使缓存服务器中的数据重新分布

2、一致性Hash算法 

一致性Hash算法通过一个叫做一致性Hash环的数据结构实现Key到缓存服务器的Hash映射,看一下我自己画的一张图: 

56e8caac44083.jpg 

具体算法过程为:先构造一个长度为232的整数环(这个环被称为一致性Hash环),根据节点名称的Hash值(其分布为[0, 232-1])将缓存服务器节点放置在这个Hash环上,然后根据需要缓存的数据的Key值计算得到其Hash值(其分布也为[0, 232-1]),然后在Hash环上顺时针查找距离这个Key值的Hash值最近的服务器节点,完成Key到服务器的映射查找。

就如同图上所示,三个Node点分别位于Hash环上的三个位置,然后Key值根据其HashCode,在Hash环上有一个固定位置,位置固定下之后,Key就会顺时针去寻找离它最近的一个Node,把数据存储在这个Node的MemCache服务器中。使用Hash环如果加了一个节点会怎么样,看一下:

一个节点会怎么样,看一下:

 

看到我加了一个Node4节点,只影响到了一个Key值的数据,本来这个Key值应该是在Node1服务器上的,现在要去Node4了。采用一致性Hash算法,的确也会影响到整个集群,但是影响的只是加粗的那一段而已,相比余数Hash算法影响了远超一半的影响率,这种影响要小得多。更重要的是,集群中缓存服务器节点越多,增加节点带来的影响越小,很好理解。换句话说,随着集群规模的增大,继续命中原有缓存数据的概率会越来越大,虽然仍然有小部分数据缓存在服务器中不能被读到,但是这个比例足够小,即使访问数据库,也不会对数据库造成致命的负载压力。

至于具体应用,这个长度为232的一致性Hash环通常使用二叉查找树实现,至于二叉查找树,就是算法的问题了,可以自己去查询相关资料。

MemCache实现原理

首先要说明一点,MemCache的数据存放在内存中,存放在内存中个人认为意味着几点:

1、访问数据的速度比传统的关系型数据库要快,因为Oracle、MySQL这些传统的关系型数据库为了保持数据的持久性,数据存放在硬盘中,IO操作速度慢

2、MemCache的数据存放在内存中同时意味着只要MemCache重启了,数据就会消失

3、既然MemCache的数据存放在内存中,那么势必受到机器位数的限制,这个之前的文章写过很多次了,32位机器最多只能使用2GB的内存空间,64位机器可以认为没有上限

然后我们来看一下MemCache的原理,MemCache最重要的莫不是内存分配的内容了,MemCache采用的内存分配方式是固定空间分配,还是自己画一张图说明:


这张图片里面涉及了slab_class、slab、page、chunk四个概念,它们之间的关系是:

1、MemCache将内存空间分为一组slab

2、每个slab下又有若干个page,每个page默认是1M,如果一个slab占用100M内存的话,那么这个slab下应该有100个page

3、每个page里面包含一组chunk,chunk是真正存放数据的地方,同一个slab里面的chunk的大小是固定的

4、有相同大小chunk的slab被组织在一起,称为slab_class

MemCache内存分配的方式称为allocator,slab的数量是有限的,几个、十几个或者几十个,这个和启动参数的配置相关。

原文链接:

http://www.hmrczp.com/news/20160511/2000.html

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