一、安装
1、安装第三方epel源
centos 5的epel

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rpm -ivh http://mirrors.sohu.com/fedora-e ... ease-5-4.noarch.rpm



centos 6的epel

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rpm -ivh http://mirrors.sohu.com/fedora-e ... ease-6-8.noarch.rpm



查看系统版本

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17:01:30 # cat /etc/issue
CentOS release 6.5 (Final)
Kernel \r on an \m



由于是6版本所以安装6的epel
2、安装ansible

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yum install ansible



如果需要自定义module或者想阅读源码、使用最新版本,可以去github里下载源码

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git clone https://github.com/ansible/ansible.git



3、添加主机

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17:22:08 # cd /etc/ansible/
root@ip-10-10-10-10:/etc/ansible
17:23:27 # ll
total 12
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5113 Dec 29 03:00 ansible.cfg
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  965 Dec 29 03:00 hosts
其中ansible.cfg是配置文件,hosts是管理主机信息
17:24:44 # cat hosts
172.17.0.2:49154
172.17.0.4:49155
[zabbix]
172.17.0.2:49154
172.17.0.4:49155
[***]
172.17.0.10



4、使用密码登陆
ansible支持正则测试

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16:20:57 # ansible 127* -m ping
SSH password:
127.0.0.1 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

root@ip-10-10-10-10:/etc/ansible
16:21:05 # ansible 172* -m ping
SSH password:
172.17.0.5 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

172.17.0.4 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

172.17.0.2 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}



如果你有多台服务器的话,想并发运行,可以使用-f参数,默认是并发5
5、使用密钥登陆测试

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11:30:35 # ansible *** -m shell -a "echo $TERM" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
xterm



二、模块应用

6、文件传输

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11:30:44 # ansible *** -m copy -a "src=/tmp/server dest=/tmp/server" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "dest": "/tmp/server",
    "gid": 505,
    "group": "test",
    "md5sum": "e8b32bc4d7b564ac6075a1418ad8841e",
    "mode": "0664",
    "owner": "test",
    "size": 7,
    "src": "/home/test/.ansible/tmp/ansible-1402630447.45-253524136818424/source",
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 503
}



去客户端查看文件是否传输过来

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11:34:57 # ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 76
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  3124 Jun 12 21:32 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 12 21:32 zabbix_agentd.pid



可以看到已经传过来了
看看文件内容

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11:35:09 # ansible *** -m shell -a "cat /tmp/server" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
server



内容正常
还有另外一个模块file,可以修改用户与权限
下面是当前文件状态

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13:50:07 # ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/server" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test test 7 Jun 13 19:33 /tmp/server



server文件是664权限,用户与组都是test
修改一下

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13:51:17 # ansible *** -m file -a "dest=/tmp/server mode=755 owner=root group=root" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0755",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/tmp/server",
    "size": 7,
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 0
}

root@ip-10-10-10-10:/etc/ansible
13:51:31 # ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/server" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7 Jun 13 19:33 /tmp/server



7、安装软件

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14:20:30 # ansible *** -m yum -a "name=nmap state=installed" -u test --private-key=denglei -K
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success >> {
    "changed": true,
    "msg": "",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security\nLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile\n * epel: mirrors.hust.edu.cn\nSetting up Install Process\nResolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package nmap.x86_64 2:5.51-3.el6 will be installed\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package        Arch             Version                   Repository      Size\n================================================================================\nInstalling:\n nmap           x86_64           2:5.51-3.el6              Base           2.7 M\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nInstall       1 Package(s)\n\nTotal download size: 2.7 M\nInstalled size: 9.7 M\nDownloading Packages:\nRunning rpm_check_debug\nRunning Transaction Test\nTransaction Test Succeeded\nRunning Transaction\n\r  Installing : 2:nmap-5.51-3.el6.x86_64                                     1/1 \n\r  Verifying  : 2:nmap-5.51-3.el6.x86_64                                     1/1 \n\nInstalled:\n  nmap.x86_64 2:5.51-3.el6                                                      \n\nComplete!\n"
    ]
}



三、playbook配置管理
8、playbook
A.进行一下shell模块操作,测试删除文件
先查看一下客户端的server-test是否存在

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/server-test" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test test 7 Jun 14 00:37 /tmp/server-test



可以看到是存在的
然后写一个删除的playbook

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat test.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  tasks:
  - name: delete /tmp/server-test
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/server-test



运行

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook test.yml  --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [delete /tmp/server-test] ***********************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0



在查看

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/server-test" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | FAILED | rc=2 >>
ls: cannot access /tmp/server-test: No such file or directory



文件已经删除
B.进行一下template模块操作,测试文件传输

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat copy.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  tasks:
  - name: copy local server to client /tmp/server-test
    template: src=/tmp/server dest=/tmp/server-test
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook copy.yml  --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [copy local server to client /tmp/server-test] **************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/server-test" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test test 7 Jun 14 17:07 /tmp/server-test



C.使用service模块,测试一下服务重启

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "/etc/init.d/pptpd stop" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k  -K -s
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
Shutting down pptpd:                                       [  OK  ]
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "/etc/init.d/pptpd stop" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k  -K -s
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
Shutting down pptpd:                                       [  OK  ]



D.多项目同时更新

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 84
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# vim multi_copy.yml
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat multi_copy.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  gather_facts: False
  tasks:
  - name: copy local server to client /tmp/server-test
    template: src=/tmp/server dest=/tmp/test-`item`
    with_items:
      - server-1
      - server-2
      - server-3
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook multi_copy.yml --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

TASK: [copy local server to client /tmp/server-test] **************************
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-1)
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-2)
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-3)

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 96
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-1
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



E.根据条件进行删除

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 96
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-1
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat delete.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  gather_facts: True
  tasks:
  - name: if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/test-server-1
    when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook delete.yml --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1] ************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 92
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



F.debug输出

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat debug.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  gather_facts: True
  tasks:
  - name: debug to print interface
    debug: msg="`item`"
    with_items: ansible_default_ipv4.address
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook debug.yml --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [debug to print interface] **********************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=10.10.32.34) => {
    "item": "10.10.32.34",
    "msg": "10.10.32.34"
}



G.check模式,仅检测,但不实行

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 92
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook copy.yml --private-key=/root/denglei -k --check
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [copy local server to client /tmp/server-test] **************************
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-1)
ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-2)
ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-3)

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0



H.diff
使用diff与不使用作对比

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "rm -rf  /tmp/test-server-1" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>


[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 92
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid

[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible-playbook copy.yml --private-key=/root/denglei -k --diff
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************

ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [copy local server to client /tmp/server-test] **************************
--- before
+++ after
@@ -1,0 +1,1 @@
+server

changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-1)

ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-2)

ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-3)

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0



9、主机信息查看
类似puppet的fact、salt的grains

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m setup -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success >> {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
            "10.10.32.34",
            "10.10.32.34"
        ],
        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [
            "fe80::f816:3eff:fe3e:1667"
        ],
        "ansible_architecture": "x86_64",
        "ansible_bios_date": "01/01/2007",
        "ansible_bios_version": "Bochs",
        "ansible_cmdline": {
            "KEYBOARDTYPE": "pc",
            "KEYTABLE": "us",
            "LANG": "zh_CN.UTF-8",
            "quiet": true,
            "rd_NO_DM": true,
            "rd_NO_LUKS": true,
            "rd_NO_LVM": true,
            "rd_NO_MD": true,
            "rhgb": true,
            "ro": true,
            "root": "UUID=c6042d42-8edb-4bb4-a31b-2197b043500c"
        },



数据太多,我就展示部分。
10、优化ansible-playbook运行时间
默认playbook是进行客户端fact搜集,一般如果你配置里没有使用fact的话,可以关闭这样就能减少运行时间
没有优化的时候

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat shell.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
#  gather_facts: False
  tasks:
  - name: echo hi
    shell: echo "hi"
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# time ansible-playbook shell.yml -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [echo hi] ***************************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


real    0m8.396s
user    0m0.796s
sys 0m0.158s
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# time ansible-playbook shell.yml -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [echo hi] ***************************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


real    0m3.309s
user    0m0.724s
sys 0m0.108s
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# time ansible-playbook shell.yml -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [echo hi] ***************************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


real    0m3.409s
user    0m0.716s
sys 0m0.099s



可以看到第一次8s,后2次都是3s
下面是优化后(未使用fact)

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat shell.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  gather_facts: False
  tasks:
  - name: echo hi
    shell: echo "hi"
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# time ansible-playbook shell.yml -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

TASK: [echo hi] ***************************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


real    0m2.758s
user    0m0.585s
sys 0m0.096s
[iyunv@puppet ansible]# time ansible-playbook shell.yml -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

TASK: [echo hi] ***************************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


real    0m2.359s
user    0m0.565s
sys 0m0.077s



运行时间就是2s
11、自定义模块
默认的模块放到/usr/share/ansible
在这个目录创建一个目录hostname,然后把下面文件放到此目录

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15:03:26 # cat /usr/share/ansible/hostname/hostname
#!/bin/bash
#This script is modify system hostname
set -e
# This is potentially dangerous
source ${1}
OLDHOSTNAME="$(hostname)"
CHANGED="False"
if [ ! -z "$hostname" -a "${hostname}x" != "${OLDHOSTNAME}x" ];
then
hostname $hostname
OLDHOSTNAME="$hostname"
CHANGED="True"
fi
echo "hostname=${OLDHOSTNAME} changed=${CHANGED}"
exit 0



查看一下***的当前hostname

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15:03:29 # ansible *** -m shell -a "hostname" -u test --private-key=denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
ip-10-10-32-34



然后编写playbook

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15:04:14 # cat /etc/ansible/hostname.yml
- name: Test the hostname file
  hosts: ***
  tasks:
    - name: Set the hostname
      hostname: hostname=ip-10-10-32-34



运行这个模块

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15:04:37 # ansible-playbook hostname.yml -u test --private-key=denglei -M /usr/share/ansible/hostname -k
SSH password:

PLAY [Test the hostname file] *************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [Set the hostname] ******************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0



然后修改一下hostname.yml的主机名

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16:20:00 # cat hostname.yml
- name: Test the hostname file
  hosts: ***
  tasks:
    - name: Set the hostname
      hostname: hostname=ip-10-10-32-34-test



在playbook运行

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16:26:46 # ansible-playbook hostname.yml -u test --private-key=denglei -M /usr/share/ansible/hostname -k -K -s
SSH password:
sudo password [defaults to SSH password]:

PLAY [Test the hostname file] *************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [Set the hostname] ******************************************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

root@ip-10-10-10-10:/etc/ansible
16:26:55 # ansible *** -m shell -a "hostname" -u test --private-key=denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
ip-10-10-32-34-test



12、playbook扩展var
扩展var就是在playbook的yml里写入变量,在执行的时候制定变量从而执行,大大的提供了重复使用率
下面做个测试

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 96
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 01:44 test-server-1
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



可以看到有test-server-1文件
在看看playbook文件内容

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat delete_vars.yml
---
- hosts: `host`
  remote_user: `user`
  gather_facts: `gather`
  tasks:
  - name: if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/test-server-1
    when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"



执行前先检测一下语法是否有问题,使用--synctax-check

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=False" -k --syntax-check
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

ERROR: Syntax Error while loading YAML script, delete_vars.yml
Note: The error may actually appear before this position: line 2, column 11

---
- hosts: `host`
          ^
This one looks easy to fix.  YAML thought it was looking for the start of a
hash/dictionary and was confused to see a second "{".  Most likely this was
meant to be an ansible template evaluation instead, so we have to give the
parser a small hint that we wanted a string instead. The solution here is to
just quote the entire value.

For instance, if the original line was:

    app_path: ` base_path `/foo

It should be written as:

    app_path: "` base_path `/foo"

We could be wrong, but this one looks like it might be an issue with
missing quotes.  Always quote template expression brackets when they
start a value. For instance:            

    with_items:
      - ` foo `

Should be written as:

    with_items:
      - "` foo `"      


This one looks easy to fix.  YAML thought it was looking for the start of a
hash/dictionary and was confused to see a second "{".  Most likely this was
meant to be an ansible template evaluation instead, so we have to give the
parser a small hint that we wanted a string instead. The solution here is to
just quote the entire value.

For instance, if the original line was:

    app_path: ` base_path `/foo

It should be written as:

    app_path: "` base_path `/foo"



可以看到有问题
解决方法是把var的变量前后添加""或者''

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat delete_vars.yml
---
- hosts: "`host`"
  remote_user: "`user`"
  gather_facts: "`gather`"
  tasks:
  - name: if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/test-server-1
    when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"



然后再检测一下

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=False" -k --syntax-check
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).


playbook: delete_vars.yml



没有问题了,在运行一下

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=False" -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1] ************************
fatal: [172.17.0.10] => error while evaluating conditional: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"

FATAL: all hosts have already failed -- aborting

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
           to retry, use: --limit @/root/delete_vars.retry

172.17.0.10             : ok=0    changed=0    unreachable=1    failed=0



无法运行,原因是我yml里制定了获取fact信息后,判断如果是redhat系列系统才删除,而我在运行的指定不收集fact,下面在指定收集fact

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=True" -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1] ************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0



可以看到运行成功了

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 92
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



文件删除了
13、tags
使用tag可以让playbook选择性的运行程序
查看一下客户端情况

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 92
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



带有tag的yml文件

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat delete_vars_tags.yml
---
- hosts: "`host`"
  remote_user: "`user`"
  gather_facts: "`gather`"
  tasks:
  - name: if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/test-server-1
    when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"
    tags: server-1
  - name: if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-2
    shell: rm -rf /tmp/test-server-2
    when: ansible_os_family == "RedHat"
    tags: server-2



做一下错误检测

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars_tags.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=True" --tags server-2 -k --syntax-check
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).


playbook: delete_vars_tags.yml



没问题在运行

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars_tags.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=True" --tags server-2 -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-2] ************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0



查看一下客户端的文件情况

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#  ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 88
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



从上面测试可以看到,如果playbook使用了tag,并且在运行中指定tag,那么运行的时候仅允许此tag的信息
下面是测试运行时候不带tag的情况
先创建文件

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# cat copy.yml
---
- hosts: ***
  remote_user: test
  tasks:
  - name: copy local server to client /tmp/server-test
    template: src=/tmp/server dest=/tmp/test-`item`
    with_items:
      - server-1
      - server-2
      - server-3
[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook copy.yml --private-key=/root/denglei  -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [copy local server to client /tmp/server-test] **************************
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-1)
changed: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-2)
ok: [172.17.0.10] => (item=server-3)

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[iyunv@puppet ansible]#  ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 96
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 19 19:02 test-server-1
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 19 19:02 test-server-2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



然后再不指定tag运行

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]#   ansible-playbook delete_vars_tags.yml --private-key=/root/denglei --extra-vars "host=*** user=test gather=True"  -k
[WARNING]: The version of gmp you have installed has a known issue regarding
timing vulnerabilities when used with pycrypto. If possible, you should update
it (ie. yum update gmp).

SSH password:

PLAY [***] ********************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-1] ************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

TASK: [if system is centos,then rm /tmp/test-server-2] ************************
changed: [172.17.0.10]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
172.17.0.10             : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0   

[iyunv@puppet ansible]#  ansible *** -m shell -a "ls -l /tmp/" -u test --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.10 | success | rc=0 >>
total 88
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root   41692 May 21 13:02 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    1228 Jun 12 18:24 install_pptpd_***.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root   root       7 Jun 13 19:33 server
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 14 17:07 server-test
-rw-rw-r-- 1 test   test       7 Jun 18 00:50 test-server-3
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root      82 Jun 12 18:21 test.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root     290 Jun 12 18:21 test.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    2444 Apr 28  2012 ***_centos6.sh
-rw------- 1 root   root     727 Jun 10 18:21 yum_save_tx-2014-06-10-18-21UrqDAp.yumtx
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix  4664 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.log
-rw-rw-r-- 1 zabbix zabbix     5 Jun 14 00:30 zabbix_agentd.pid



可以看到如果不知道tag,那么运行的时候,会全部运行。
FAQ:
1、出现Error: ansible requires a json module, none found!

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SSH password:
172.17.0.4 | FAILED >> {
    "failed": true,
    "msg": "Error: ansible requires a json module, none found!",
    "parsed": false
}



原因是python版本过低,要不升级python要不就安装python-simplejson,下面是官方的话

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On the managed nodes, you only need Python 2.4 or later, but if you are running less than Python 2.5 on the remotes, you will also need:



安装完成后,在查看

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SSH password:
172.17.0.4 | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}



2、默认ansible是使用key验证的,如果使用密码登陆的服务器,使用ansible的话,要不修改ansible.cfg配置文件的 ask_pass      = True给取消注释,要不就在运行命令时候加上-k,这个意思是-k, --ask-pass        ask for SSH password
3、如果客户端不在know_hosts里将会报错

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paramiko: The authenticity of host '172.17.0.5' can't be established.
The ssh-rsa key fingerprint is 397c139fd4b0d763fcffaee346a4bf6b.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?



如果想解决此问题,需要修改ansible.cfg的#host_key_checking = False取消注释
4、如果出现

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible zabbix -m shell -a "echo $TERM" -u denglei --private-key=/root/denglei
172.17.0.2 | FAILED => FAILED: not a valid DSA private key file
172.17.0.4 | FAILED => FAILED: not a valid DSA private key file



需要你在最后添加参数-k

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[iyunv@puppet ansible]# ansible zabbix -m shell -a "echo $TERM" -u denglei --private-key=/root/denglei -k
SSH password:
172.17.0.2 | success | rc=0 >>
xterm

172.17.0.4 | success | rc=0 >>
xterm